You are browsing the archive for 2013 January.

by admin

PBOC issues commemorative coins for navigation system

January 31, 2013 in China Coins, Commemorative, Gold, Gold Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, World Coins

Updated: 2013-01-30 17:02 ( Xinhua) (http://www.chinadaily.com.cn)

BEIJING — China’s central bank has issued a set of two commemorative coins marking theofficial launch of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, or BDS, last December.

The set includes one gold and one silver coin, both of which are fiat money of the People’sRepublic of China, according to the People’s Bank of China.

The coins both feature a variety of decorative elements, including the national emblem, imagesof satellites and binary codes.

The PBOC will issue 30,000 gold coins with a face value of 150 yuan ($24.08) and 60,000silver coins with a face value of 10 yuan.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Presenting GoldMadeSimple.com

January 31, 2013 in Gold, Gold Bullion, Gold Coins, Investing, Precious Metals, World Coins

By: Georgia Penny. January 31st, 2013
GoldMadeSimple.com is one of the UK’s leading bullion merchants and custodians, specializing in providing sales and world class storage of capital gains tax free gold and gold bullion within SIPP/SSAS pensions. As well as supplying other forms of gold bullion, such as kilo bars and worldwide delivery services at www.GoldMadeSimple.com , we also publish industry leading gold news (www.GoldMadeSimpleNews.com  ) and high end trader and market signals for private investors (www.GoldInvestorReport.net ). 
 
GoldMadeSimple.com are included in the official World Gold Council ‘Where to Invest’ section of their website and are regularly featured in mainstream media eg  FT.com, BBC TV, The Times, Telegraph etc…  and have been guest speakers at FT and AMPS pension conferences. 
 
With thousands of registered high net worth investors, we have tailored our tax exempt gold products and secure storage services specifically for high net worth individuals. 
 
As well as being the best performing investment asset class over the last 10 years, interest in gold is rapidly expanding in view of the current economic climate. Collaborating with organisations such as the Royal Mint, we publish a range of gold related information, including the different risks and tax benefits of various types of gold, the gold, buying process, costs and methods of storage / delivery. 
 
For further details, contact customerservices@goldmadesimple.com
Share Button

by admin

Auction set for gold coins found in recluse’s garage

January 30, 2013 in Coins, Collecting, Gold, Gold Coins, Inheritance, Precious Metals, Treasure, USA Coins

By Cy Ryan Tuesday, Jan. 29, 2013 (http://www.lasvegassun.com) Las Vegas Sun.

CARSON CITY — Uncle Sam is going to get first crack at $7.4 million in gold coins left hidden away by a recluse who died without a will.

District Judge James Wilson today set a date of Feb. 26 to auction off some of the gold coins to pay off $800,000 in inheritance taxes due in March.

The rest of the estate will go to Arlene Magdanz of San Rafael, Calif., a first cousin of Samasko who was determined to be his only living relative.

Samasko, who lived alone on $500 a month from stock investments, died in May at his home in Carson City. It was a month — only after neighbors complained of an odor coming from the house — before anybody realized he had died.

During a cleanup of his house, 2,695 gold coins from various countries were discovered in boxes in the garage, among cartons of tuna.

The auction will be held at the courthouse.

Full Article>

Related Article>

Share Button

by admin

Coins: Builders Find Stash In Irish Pub

January 30, 2013 in Ancient Coins, Antique Coins, British Coins, Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, Treasure, World Coins

By: Sky News (http://news.sky.com) Tuesday 29 January 2013

A “fantastic” and “incredibly valuable” haul of gold coins dating back to the 17th century is found by builders fixing up a pub.

Builders working in an old pub in the Irish Republic have unearthed one of the most significant finds of gold coins ever recorded in the country.

Eighty-one coins, mostly guineas and half guineas dating back to the 17th century, were dug up from clay underneath floorboards in the fire-damaged premises of Cooney’s pub in the town of Carrick-on-Suir, County Tipperary.

Marie McMahon, the curator at South Tipperary Museum in Clonmel where the coins were first stored said: “We were told that they were gold and you never really believe it, normally you would find silver, but they were in fantastic condition.

“There are one or two coins buckled and one tarnished, but overall fantastic condition. They’d be incredibly valuable but legally we would not be allowed to discuss that.”

Full Article>

 

Share Button

by admin

Silver dollar sells for $10 million; 1794 coin strikes gold at auction

January 28, 2013 in Auctions, Coins, Collecting, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

JANUARY 26, 2013 BY: JANE LASKY (http://www.examiner.com)

On Jan. 24, a silver dollar went for a cool $10 million at a Stack and Bowers auction in New York. According to a number of reports this looked into this sale of the rare coin that came into being in 1794, this recent purchase of the scarce currency illustrates Lady Liberty in profile while looking to the right. She is surrounded by stars that represent every state in the union at the time of issue.

So why did this coin bring in so much cash?

For starters, the reason is because experts say this is the first American metal dollar struck by the U.S. mint. Known as the Flowing Hair Silver Dollar, this particular version from the Cardinal Collection is also said to be in the best shape of any still in circulation. In addition, the particular design on this particular silver dollar reportedly was only used in 1794 and 1795.

Beyond that, and possibly most interesting, MSN by way of the Orange County Register reportsthat this very coin could actually have been “touched by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton…”

Why is the 1794 silver dollar worth so much?  And so who purchased such a rare find?

It was Laura Sperber of Legend Numismatics, a New Jersey-based rare-coin company. The free-spending firm put out a statement saying,

“We felt in our heart that this would be the very first coin to exceed the $10 million barrier in auction.”

Legend Numismatics, who is reportedly not in the market to sell this scarce money piece just yet, said that they were “prepared to bid much higher in order to acquire this unique piece of history.”

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Stack’s Bowers Galleries Sets World Record With Sale Of 1794 Silver Dollar For $10,016,875

January 26, 2013 in Coins, Collecting, History, Silver, Silver Coins, Treasure, USA Coins

Highest price ever realized for any rare coin at auction

1794 Silver Dollar

1794 Silver Dollar

STACK'S BOWERS GALLERIES

1794 Silver Dollar

IRVINE, Calif., Jan. 25, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Leading rare coin auctioneer Stack’s Bowers Galleries conducted one of the most highly-anticipated events in numismatic history on January 24, 2013, with the sale of the record-setting Cardinal Collection. The highlight of the evening was the $10,016,875 sale of the coveted 1794 Flowing Hair silver dollar, a superb Gem Specimen example, the finest known to exist. This set a new world-record price for any coin. Attended by hundreds of enthusiasts, collectors, investors and dealers, and resulting in nearly $27 million in rare coins crossing the block, the auction of The Cardinal Collection and other important consignments took place as part of the Stack’s Bowers Galleries New York Americana Sale.

To be a part of this historical occasion is nothing short of amazing!” said Chris Napolitano , president of Stack’s Bowers Galleries. “Collectors competed with great fervor and energy, resulting in outstanding overall prices realized. The price of the gem 1794 dollar went up and up into the millions, with everyone in the audience on the edge of their seats until at last there was just one bidder remaining. At $10,016,875, a world-record price for any coin had been set! The previous record was $7,590,020 for a 1933 Double Eagle, set in 2002 by our firm in partnership with Sotheby’s. While it is well known that the value of the American dollar has depreciated over the years, here is a dollar that has increased in value beyond the wildest of anyone’s dreams.”

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

New £2 London Underground Coins In Circulation

January 25, 2013 in British Coins, Coins, Euro Coins, World Coins

BY RACHEL HOLDSWORTH · JANUARY 24, 2013 (http://londonist.com/)

Check your change: from this week, two specially designed coins celebrating the Underground’s 150th anniversary go into circulation.

Designed by Edward Barber and Jay Osgerby, who were responsible for the 2012 Olympic torch, one coin shows a train emerging from a tunnel with edging reminscent of tube map interchanges. The other is a roundel with ‘MIND THE GAP’ on the side

£2 London Underground Coins

£2 London Underground Coins (Image from the Royal Mint)

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

What Metals and Materials are Used in US Coins and Banknotes?

January 25, 2013 in Coins, Copper Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, Platinum, Platinum Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

By Gary Thomas (http://www.azom.com)

History of Metal Coins in USA

The United States dollar (USD/US$) is also referred to as American dollar or the U.S. dollar. It is the official currency of the United States of America and its overseas territories. One American dollar is divided into 100 smaller units called cents.

Here is a brief look into the history of currency in the U.S.:

  • In 1781, Congress chartered the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the first national bank. It was to support the financial operations of the fledgling government.
  • In 1785, Congress adopted the dollar as the monetary unit of the United States.
  • In 1792, the Coinage Act of 1792 created the U.S. Mint and established a federal monetary system with set denominations for coins, and specified the value of each coin in gold, silver, or copper.
  • In 1861, the federal government circulated the first paper money.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Rare 200-year-old half cent coin discovered in a matchbox during attic clear-out sells for £225,700

January 24, 2013 in Antique Coins, Coins, Copper Coins, USA Coins

  • American coin dates back to 1796 and is one of just 1,400 ever made

  • Copper half cent was undiscovered for 50 years after owner’s death in 1963

By EMILY DAVIES

PUBLISHED: 08:10 EST, 23 January 2013  (http://www.dailymail.co.uk)

A rare 200-year-old coin which was hidden for half a century in a tiny cabinet made of matchboxes has sold for £225,700 – a staggering 72 million times its face value.

The U.S. copper half cent was minted in 1796 and was one of just 1,400 ever struck. It was picked out of a hoard of 70 coins by an expert after being taken to an auction house in Wiltshire.

The collection had been gathered by Oxford student Mark Hillary, who died aged 20 in 1963 in a climbing accident.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

The Real Story Behind Germany’s Gold Recall

January 22, 2013 in Gold, Investing, Money, Politics

Jan 22nd, 2013 | Byron King (http://dailyresourcehunter.com)

Did you hear the news? Germany, the world’s second largest gold-holding nation, is recalling some of its gold. The Germans are bringing the physical metal – once on hold outside its borders – back in country.

This is a huge development in the world gold market. But more importantly may portend a life-changing trend that gold buyers like you and I can take to the bank.

Today let’s connect a few more dots, and talk gold…

Germany, Russia, Ronald Reagan, Clausewitz, this story has it all. Let’s start by covering a distant memory, the Cold War.

Indeed, the Cold War is not just over, it’s REALLY over. Get over it. The world is REALLY changing, and I mean in ways that you can scarcely begin to comprehend.

Yes, I know. The Soviet Union fell apart in 1991. Germany reunified – expensive as that was – and the Red Army went home to Mother Russia in the mid-1990s. (I was in Berlin, in 1991, right after I did my thing in Operation Desert Storm. Wow, I could tell you some stories about the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, headquartered at Potsdam. Another time, perhaps.)

But now? In 2013? What’s happening? There’s big news, which the mainstream media evidently fails to comprehend, while they fixate on the wrong sorts of shiny stuff – “gun control,” for instance, and what Hollywood celebrities think about it.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Douglas Winter Numismatics Sells Rare US Gold Coins From Eliasberg Collection

January 22, 2013 in Coin Shows, Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, USA Coins

Rare New Orleans gold coins, pedigreed to the famous Eliasberg Collection, have been sold via private treaty through Douglas Winter Numismatics, the authority on US gold coins.

Portland, OR (PRWEB.COM) January 21, 2013

US Gold Coins From Eliasburg Collection

US Gold Coins From Eliasburg Collection

Douglas Winter Numismatics, a Portland, Oregon, rare coin dealership specializing in choice and rare American gold coins struck from 1795 to 1900, recently sold an important group of New Orleans gold coins pedigreed to the famous Eliasberg Collection. The coins had been off the market for many years and they were sold into the finest collection of New Orleans gold ever assembled, which DWN has been working on since 2005.

According to Doug Winter, “I was able to purchase these three coins via private treaty at the recent FUN Convention, held in Orlando, Florida. They are amongst the most significant coins to have traded at this show.”

The three coins that Winter sold are an NGC MS63 1842-O half eagle (the finest known for the date), an 1844-O half eagle graded MS64 by NGC (the second finest known for the date), and an 1841-O eagle graded AU58 by PCGS (the finest known for the date). All three coins trace their pedigree to the October 1982 sale of the famous Louis Eliasberg collection, the greatest collection of American gold coins ever sold.

Winter, who has extensively researched New Orleans gold coins, stated the following: “The 1842-O half eagle is one of just three known of this date in uncirculated condition. The 1844-O half eagle is slightly more available but it is the second finest known. The 1841-O eagle is extremely rare with just a few dozen known from an original mintage of 2,500. It is well-known as the finest known example of this major rarity.”

Full Article>

 

Share Button

by admin

Steve Ahring has written a book on coins and Christianity

January 21, 2013 in Ancient Coins, Coins, Collecting, Gold, Gold Coins, History, Precious Metals, Roman Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, World Coins

By NIKKI PATRICK The Morning Sun (http://www.morningsun.net)

Posted Jan 20, 2013 @ 07:30 AM

GIRARD- Coins have always served as a medium of exchange, but are also a form of communication. In ancient times, they were often the only way of getting out messages or propaganda.

“For the bulk of human history, communication was extremely limited,” said Steve Ahring, rural Girard. “Newspapers, radios, televisions and the Internet are recent innovations. In past ages, coins played an important role in notifying citizens of changes in leadership and important events.”

He is the author of “A Numismatic History of Christianity,” tracing the beginning and evolution of Christianity over the past 2,500 years, with coins serving to verify the time, places, events and the people recorded.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Company selling 9/11 commemorative coins LIED about silver from the World Trade Center

January 21, 2013 in Coins, Commemorative, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

PUBLISHED: 00:10 EST, 20 January 2013 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk)

  • National Collector’s Mint has agreed to pay $700,000 in fines after the FTC lodged a complaint
  • New York Senator Charles Schumer blasts the company for its ‘scam’

The Federal Trade Commission is coming down hard on a company seeking to cash in on phony 9/11 memorabilia.

National Collector’s Mint, based out of Port Chester, NY, was advertising a 9/11 commemorative coin that purportedly contained actual silver from ground zero.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Silver Eagle Demand Soars – U.S. Mint Sold Out

January 18, 2013 in Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

January 17, 2013 (Gold and Silver Blog, http://goldandsilverblog.com)

Silver Eagle Bullion

Silver Eagle Bullion

Demand for the United States Mint’s American Silver Eagle bullion coins has been off the charts since the beginning of the year.  After running out of the silver bullion coins last year, 2013 opening day sales of the Silver Eagles were the largest on record with sales of 3,937,000 coins.   First day sales of the silver coins amounted to an astonishing 12% of last year’s total sales of 33,742,500 coins.

Full Article>

 

Share Button

by admin

Reward Offered For Recovery Of Valuable Coin Collection In Aiken

January 17, 2013 in Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

By: RANDY KEY | Aiken Department of Public Safety/Crime Stoppers of the Midlands
Published: January 16, 2013

Aiken, SC — The Aiken Department of Public Safety and Crime Stoppers of the Midlands needs help from the public in recovering a highly collectible coin collection.

Aiken Department of Public Safety and Crime Stoppers are offering up to $1,000 for information and the return of the coin collection and the victim has come forward and offered additional $2,500 cash in the recovery of these coins.

Full Article>

 

Share Button

by admin

Gold coin honours Inuit art at Winnipeg gallery

January 17, 2013 in Canadian Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, World Coins

Design inspired by Nunavik artist’s carving

CBC News (http://www.cbc.ca)  Posted: Jan 16, 2013 12:09 PM CST

The Royal Canadian Mint unveiled a 50 cent gold collector coin Tuesday honouring Inuit art and the centennial of the Winnipeg Art Gallery.

The design of the coin was inspired by the carving Owl Shaman holding Goose by Inuk artist Joannassie Nowkawalk. Nowkawalk, a carver from Inukjuak, Que., created the piece in 1962.

The carving is part of the Winnipeg Art Gallery’s contemporary Inuit art collection, the largest in the world with more than 11,000 artworks. The gallery is celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2012-2013.

The word Canada appears on the coin in English and in Inuktitut.

 Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Gold, gold, GOLD!!!

January 17, 2013 in Gold, Investing, Money

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 16, 2013 By: Noah Smith (http://noahpinionblog.blogspot.com)

On November 11, 2011, Zero Hedge ran a post from a site called GoldCore. The title was: “Gold Over EUR 1,300 – On Way to ‘Infinity’ on Eurozone Contagion?” Here is what it said:

The unprecedented scale of the [European] debt crisis means that inflation and currency devaluations will almost certainly result from the crisis. Savers and those on fixed incomes will be very vulnerable as they were in the stagflation of the 1970’s and in the economic meltdowns seen in Argentina, Russia and in Belarus as we speak…

However, the US is itself facing a debt crisis which is also of a monumental scale. It is of a scale that it cannot be resolved by the usual kneejerk resorting to the printing presses and today’s equivalent panacea – computer credit creation…

Ron Paul gave another perceptive interview to CNBC yesterday and warned of hyperinflation and the possibility that the dollar could become worthless.

When asked how high the gold price would go and why, he responded:

“well, the question is how much lower is the dollar going to go in purchasing power? and I said to infinity unless we change our ways.”

Full Article>

 

Share Button

by admin

20th Anniversary of the National Bank of Slovakia 10 Euro Silver Coin

January 16, 2013 in Euro Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, World Coins

January 14, 2013 By Michael Alexander (http://news.coinupdate.com)

The National Bank of Slovakia has issued (11th January) a new coin, the first for 2013, which marks one of their very own anniversaries, that of their 20th anniversary of their establishment in 1993. The Národná banka Slovenska as it is known in the Slovak language, was established as the central bank of the Slovak Republic on the 1st January 1993 after the Czech and Slovak Federation was split into two separate countries.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

1792 Nickel Sells For $1.41 Million At Auction

January 15, 2013 in Auctions, Coins, USA Coins

The Huffington Post  |  Posted: 01/14/2013 1:13 pm EST  |  Updated: 01/14/2013 1:45 pm EST

One of the oldest U.S. nickels in existence is worth way more than just five cents.

A 1792 nickel, one of the first coins ever minted, sold for $1.41 million at an auction in Orlando, Fla., according to Upi.com. The nickel was sold as part of a rare currency and coin auction held on Thursday by Heritage Auctions.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Visual Capitalist is Hiding Over $2,000 of Silver

January 14, 2013 in Conventions, Precious Metals, Silver

Click here to find out about it

Share Button

by admin

Undervalued U.S. Gold Coins in the $1,500-3,500 Range

January 12, 2013 in Coins, Gold Coins, USA Coins

By Doug Winter On 

An article of mine was recently published by a content partner   and a reader left a comment about how my subject was elitist and  I am only concerned with selling $50,000+ coins. Hey, I LOVE selling $50,000 coins but I probably sell ten times more $1,500-3,500 coins every year than I do big ticket items. So to placate my angry reader, I thought I’d give some brief suggestions. Steven Mlaker, this one’s for you!

Read Full Post>

 

Share Button

by admin

New York World Coin Auction realizes nearly $12 Million

January 12, 2013 in Ancient Coins, Auctions, Brazil Coins, Coins, Collecting, Gold, Gold Coins, Platinum Coins, USA Coins, World Coins

From Heritage Auctions (Collector news) (http://coins.ha.com)

Rare gold from around the world led the way as the Heritage Ancient & World Coin Signature Auction realized over $11.8 million overall January 6-7 in New York. All prices include a 17.5% Buyer’s Premium.

Taking top honors in this auction was a pattern gold Crown struck for Queen Victoria, graded Proof 64 Ultra Cameo, which sold for $235,000. This ultra-rare, undated piece was struck in 1887 in Nuremberg, Germany. The obverse was patterned after the famous William Wyon young head portrait of Victoria, while the reverse devices include the Order of the Garter crest supported by a crowned lion and a unicorn in chains. The designer of this piece is unverified, as the artist did not sign the dies for this piece.

Gold ingots from Brazil are extremely rare in private hands, and those with the original certificate, the Guia doubly so. A Brazilian ingot of Serro Frio, 1832, one of only 6-8 surviving ingots with Guia, sold for $188,000 in New York. This piece boasts a pedigree going back over 100 years and was likely one of the last such ingots struck, as research done by prominent Brazilian numismatist Kurt Prober lists a single 1833 example. The vast majority of Brazilian ingots reside in museums and institutions. Another Brazilian ingot, this one from Goias 1821, sold for $99,875.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Sparta family gives ancient coins, bone relics

January 12, 2013 in Ancient Coins, Bronze Coins, Byzantine Coins, Copper Coins, Roman Coins, World Coins

JAN 9, 2013 (http://spartaindependent.com)

SPARTA — The Diaz Family of Sparta once again made their annual donations of ancient coins and a St. Elizabeth Ann Seton bone reliquary.

The family has been donating relics to local Catholic churches and schools for the past 17 years. The relics are family heirlooms, collected since the 1970s. The donations traditionally coincide with the anniversary of the death of Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first North American born Saint, on Jan. 4 1821.

This year, the recipients were St. Therese Catholic Church and School in Succasunna and St. Joseph Regional School in Newton.

“The bone reliquary and two ancient coin collections were lovingly gifted to St. Therese Catholic Church and School and to St. Joseph’s Catholic School in honor of St. Elizabeth Ann Seton, Fausto and Emilia Diaz, the 26 shooting victims of Newtown, Conn. and for all American and Allied servicemen killed, wounded or missing in action,” said Angel Diaz, representing himself and his family, Bozena, Elizabeth and Sophia.

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Before Cashing Out My Coins

January 12, 2013 in Coins, Gold, Gold Coins, Platinum Coins, Politics, Precious Metals, Proof Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, USA Coins

by Tom Maguire on January 11, 2013 (http://justoneminute.typepad.com)

Matt Yglesias is a one-man wrecking crew in an epic battle against reality. His launch point was the Trillion Dollar coin concept, and he delivers not one but twomissiles of misinformation today.

His first launch:

The Platinum Coin Was Intended To Generate Seigniorage

No, not really at all. What is “seigniorage”? It is the added value that attaches to a bit of metal (or paper) when the government deems it to be legal tender. For example, a few cents worth of copper and bronze are stamped and boom – we have a quarter worth $0.25.

But platinum is part of the US bullion coin program, along with silver, gold and palladium. Using gold as an example, the Mint takes an ounce of gold worth maybe $1,600, stamps it with a face amount of $50 and boom – sells it for $50, thereby losing $1,550. NO!

They sell it for $1,600 plus a mark-up for production, marketing and administration. But that magic stamp of $50 isn’t why they can sell the coin for more than $1,600 – it’s the gold!

With the bullion coin program the Mint makes money by banging out their precious metal coins more cheaply than the Canadians can deliver their Maple Leafs, the Australians their Koalas, the Chinese their Pandas, and so on. How does General Motors make money? Seigniorage or great products? Yeah, this is America!

Full Article>

Share Button

by admin

Casa Nacional de la Moneda de Bolivia

January 11, 2013 in Coins, Silver, Silver Coins, World Coins

January 11, 2013 http://notesfromcamelidcountry.net

The Casa Nacional de la Moneda de Bolivia in Potosi is an imposing building. From the moment you see the huge wooden doors, complete with large metal studs, you know it is anything but ordinary. The whole building is constructed like a fortress, for this was the mint established by the Spanish to process the silver they were ripping out of the mines in the Cerro Rico (Rich Mountain). Silver which made Potosi famous and Spain rich.

Founded in 1759 to replace to the original sixteenth-century mint, the Casa de la Moneda continued to function as a mint until 1951. Today it is an excellent museum telling the story of the mint and, more poignantly, the history of the destructive force of Spanish greed on the peoples of the Andes. Potosi held the largest silver deposits in the known world, and its discovery in the 1540′s was a godsend for the Spanish and an unmitigated disaster for the entire Andean highlands.

Full Article>

Share Button
Translate »